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Application Of Stepper Motor In Robot Design

Shenzhen ECON Technology Co.,Ltd | Updated: Jul 30, 2018

Application of stepper motor in robot design


The robot is the earliest industrial robot, and it is also the earliest modern robot. It can replace the heavy labor of people to realize the mechanization and automation of production, and can operate under harmful environment.

Protecting personal safety, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, electronics, light industry and atomic energy.


The robot is mainly composed of three parts: the actuator, the drive mechanism and the control system. This article mainly introduces the three major elements of the drive and control system designed by the robot: stepper motor, stepper driver, controller.


The robot can be divided into hydraulic, pneumatic, electric and mechanical manipulators according to the driving method. The three-degree-of-freedom manipulator designed in this paper is a hybrid manipulator that combines electric and pneumatic

The advantage of the robot is that it saves the travel switch and the I/O port, and achieves the purpose of easy operation and precise positioning.


A manipulator is a mechatronic automatic device that simulates a person's arm movements, in accordance with setting procedures, trajectories, and requirements, instead of manually grasping, handling, or holding tools. Three degrees of freedom the robot, also known as the 3D robot, is capable of grasping or placing items in three degrees of freedom (horizontal, vertical, and rotational). It has a wide operating range, flexibility, and wide application.


A programmable controller (PLC) is an electronic control unit designed for industrial applications that performs digital operations. Due to its high reliability, strong function, simple programming, human-computer interaction widely used in industrial control systems due to its friendly interface.


A stepper motor is an open-loop actuator that converts an electrical pulse signal into an angular displacement or line displacement. In the case of non-overload, the speed and stop position of the motor depend only on the frequency and pulse of the pulse signal.

number. The existence of this linear relationship, coupled with the stepper motor only periodic error and no cumulative error, makes it widely used in the control of speed, positioning and other fields.


1. The system structure and movement mode of the manipulator

The robot is a cylindrical coordinate type. The left and right movement of the robot arm (horizontal direction) is controlled by the telescopic stepper motor, and the up and down motion (vertical direction) is controlled by the lifting stepper motor, counterclockwise and clockwise.

The rotary motion is controlled by the positive and negative rotation of the chassis DC motor. The clamping device of the robot adopts a joint structure, and its clamping and releasing are driven by air pressure and controlled by a solenoid valve.


The robot can carry the workpiece from A to B according to the action of the setting program.


2. Robot control system design


The robot system has a manual mode and an automatic mode. The automatic mode is divided into four methods: automatic homing, single step, single cycle, and continuous operation.


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